It's the permanent auroras that glimmer at Jupiter's poles that could be providing the extra energy to heat the gas giant to temperatures way beyond what we expect – and likely, along with a dense solar wind, responsible for the billowing heatwave.
"Last year we produced … the first maps of Jupiter's upper atmosphere capable of identifying the dominant heat sources," says astronomer James O'Donoghue of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan.
Its upper atmosphere should have an average temperature of around -73 degrees Celsius (-99 degrees Fahrenheit).
Instead, it sits at around 420 degrees Celsius – comparable to Earth's upper atmosphere, and way higher than can be accounted for by solar heating alone.
We also know that auroras here on Earth cause not-insignificant heating of our own atmosphere.
Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus are all hundreds of degrees hotter than solar heating can account for.